The Environment in Focus | WYPR

The Environment in Focus

The Environment in Focus is a weekly perspective on the issues and people changing Maryland's natural world.  There's a story behind every bend of the Chesapeake Bay's 11,684 miles of shoreline, in every abandoned coal mine in the Appalachian Mountains, in every exotic beetle menacing our forests and in every loophole snuck into pollution control laws in Annapolis.  Tom Pelton gives you a tour of this landscape every Wednesday at 7:46 a.m. and 5:45 p.m.

Tom Pelton is a national award-winning environmental journalist, formerly with The Baltimore Sun.  He is now director of communications at the Environmental Integrity Project, a nonprofit organization dedicated to holding polluters and governments accountable to protect public health.

The Environment in Focus is independently owned and distributed by Environment in Focus Radio to WYPR and other stations.   The program is sponsored by the Abell Foundation, which is working to enhance the quality of life in Baltimore and in Maryland.  The views expressed are solely Pelton's.  You can contact him at pelton.tom@gmail.com

Full Archive of Environment in Focus

Photo of the Enviva Ahoskie wood pellet mill in North Carolina, courtesy of the Dogwood Alliance

 

Audio will be posted by the end of the day on Thursday.

Last month, during an Earth Day event staged with timber industry executives at a school in Georgia, EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt announced that the Trump Administration would officially consider the clearcutting and burning of forests to be good for the climate.

The administration declared that burning wood – or “biomass,” as it’s called in industry jargon – to generate electricity is “carbon neutral.” Why? Because the carbon dioxide pollution that wood-fueled power plants release will allegedly be balanced out by the industry’s replanting of trees. This “carbon neutral” designation means EPA will grant the rapidly-growing biomass industry exemptions from any future carbon dioxide pollution control rules.

One of the biggest beneficiaries of the policy shift is a Bethesda, Maryland-based company called Enviva Biomass. Enviva is the world’s largest producer of industrial wood pellets, and it owns manufacturing plants in Virginia, North and South Carolina, Mississippi and Florida.

Cornell Lab of Ornithology

 

Kevin Omland, a biology professor at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, stands below a highway overpass towering above a wooded stream valley in the Patapsco Valley State Park, just southwest of Baltimore.

He aims his binoculars up at a scraggly nest of sticks that ravens built in the steel beams beneath Interstate 195.

 “Give yourself a second and you can see three young,” Omland said. “They are hanging out there quite peacefully. Not flapping, maybe stretching a little bit.”

 “Wow!"  I replied. "Three large, black, sinister looking dudes sitting up on their nest under the bridge -- kind of ominous."

“Tom, you’re squinting incorrectly. Those are beautiful creatures,” Omland said. “They are going to have marvelous iridescent plumage in just a few days.”

Inside Climate News

Last week, this program discussed the spending and mismanagement scandals plaguing the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and how they are increasing pressure on President Trump to fire EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt.

But if Pruitt goes, who is next in line to run EPA? 

The U.S. Senate recently held hearings to confirm EPA’s new deputy administrator, Andrew Wheeler, who will automatically step up should his boss step down.

Wheeler, an environmental lawyer from Ohio, emphasized his work as EPA attorney, from 1991 to 1995.  “The environment today is cleaner than it has ever been in modern times,” Wheeler said. “As a nation, we have made tremendous progress since the 1970’s, and we have to build upon that progress.”

The New York Times

Last week, Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Scott Pruitt appeared before a U.S. House committee to answer questions about several scandals that have marked his administration.

“Good morning, Administrator Pruitt, and welcome back to the environment subcommittee,” said Congressman John Shimkus, a Republican from Illinois, chairman of the Environment Subcommittee of the House Energy and Commerce Committee.

Congressman John Sarbanes of Maryland, a Democrat, was among those who grilled the EPA Administrator. Pruitt is a former Oklahoma attorney general who works in close concert with his state’s oil and gas industry to roll back environmental regulations that impact that industry.

“We’ve trying to keep up with the ethical lapses of the Trump Administration, and which I will tell you is kind of a full-time job,” Sarbanes said.  “And you certainly have been at the center of some of that focus. To date, five independent federal investigations have been initiated at this committee’s request, and more than eight independent federal reviews.” 

The Maryland Department of the Environment recently released its annual report on the agency’s efforts to enforce environmental laws in the state.

Tim Wheeler, associate editor and editor for the Bay Journal, examined the state’s water pollution enforcement numbers as part of his ongoing scrutiny of the bay cleanup.

He noticed a significant dropoff in actions by the agency under the most recent year of Governor Larry Hogan’s Administration.  “For water enforcement last year, the year that ended the end of June 2017, MDE (the Maryland Department of the Environment) took 771 enforcement actions. That’s 46 percent fewer than the year before, and the fewest number in the last decade,” Wheeler said.

But it’s not just water pollution enforcement actions that are down. According to the state report, the number of state water pollution inspectors has declined over time from 62 in the year 2000 to 47 last year.

 

Tom Pelton

In a park in West Baltimore, a spectacular arched stone bridge rises over a stream called the Gwynns Falls, which flows into Baltimore’s Inner Harbor and the Chesapeake Bay.

Although the bridge is beautiful and trees beside the stream are blossoming, when you look at the stream, you see that the Gwynns Falls is troubled. A whirpool of sludge twists under the bridge, with a gyre of Styrofoam cups and plastic bottles.

Alice Volpitta is the lead water quality scientist for Blue Water Baltimore, a nonprofit that is fighting to clean up this and other city waterways.  She points to a sign and a sewer on the banks of the river.

“Baltimore City Department of Works has posted a temporary health warning sign next to this manhole to indicate there has recently been some sort of sewage overflow coming out of this manhole,” Volpitta said. “And if you get closer, you can smell the sewage.”

The Washington Post

At Midnight on Monday, the Maryland General Assembly’s annual session ended with applause and a traditional Latin phrase for adjournment.

“Sine die!” a state lawmaker called out, receiving loud and sustained applause in the senate chambers.

The most significant environmental bill to pass this year came in reaction to President Trump’s announcement in January that his administration would open up the East Coast to offshore drilling, including off Ocean City Maryland and at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay.

State Delegate Kumar Barve, the Democratic chair of the House Environment and Transportation committee, co-sponsored a bill that will hold any drilling companies strictly liable for paying for the full cost of any damages and cleanups from oil spills.

Union of Concerned Scientists

On Monday, the Trump Administration announced that it will be eliminating air pollution control standards for cars and trucks imposed six years ago that would have required a doubling in the fuel efficiency of vehicles by 2025.

This could mean larger gas-guzzlers on our roads. The President’s rationale for this and other recent regulatory rollbacks is his claim that environmental rules hurt the economy.

“Let’s cut the red tape,” President Trump said.  “Let’s set free our dreams, and yes, let’s make America great again. And one of the ways we’re going to do that is by getting rid of a lot of unnecessary regulation.”

This argument clashes with the historical record, which shows that auto makers enjoyed record-setting sales in 2016 and 2015 even under tighter fuel-efficiency standards imposed by the Obama Administration in 2012.

Baltimore Waterfront Partnership

Mr. Trash Wheel is a water-driven trash-interceptor and collection machine that was installed four years ago at the mouth of the Jones Falls, where it empties into Baltimore’s Inner Harbor.

It was invented by Baltimore entrepreneur John Kellett and has succeeded in collecting more than 1.5 million pounds of garbage over the years. It has also collected a large social media following, with 30,000 followers on Twitter, Facebook and Instagram.

Tom Pelton

It was April 26, 1607. Three English ships, the Susan Constant, the Godspeed and the Discovery, were sailing across the wind-swept Atlantic Ocean when their captain, Christopher Newport, saw the low-slung coast of the new world and entered the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay.

Newport, Captain John Smith and the other founders of the Jamestown colony, had not come for freedom.

In that way, they were different than other English colonizers of North America: the Pilgrims, who landed farther north 13 years earlier and established the Plymouth colony. The Pilgrims were religious separatists who endured the alien landscape because they hungered for religious liberty.

By contrast, Jamestown was established by the Virginia Company of London strictly as a for-profit business. The corporate mission was to find gold, as the Spanish did when they plundered the Aztecs almost a century earlier.

Tom Pelton

The Baltimore City Council on Monday approved two bills that environmental activists in the city had been fighting to advance for years.

The first bans the construction or expansion of any crude oil terminals in the city. The goal of this legislation, which passed by a vote of 14-1 and now must be signed by the mayor, is to reduce the risk that trains carrying volatile crude oil could derail and explode in the city.

The second bill outlaws a petroleum product: Styrofoam cups and fast-food containers, which do not break down in the environment like paper products, and so create a persistent source of litter, and a blight in streams and along roadsides.

Media Matters

For more than a quarter century, the Bay Journal has been a respected voice on the Chesapeake Bay cleanup effort, funded in part through grants from the Environmental Protection Agency.

Then last spring, the journal published stories about the Trump Administration’s proposed deep cuts to EPA and how they would damage the Chesapeake Bay cleanup. In response, a political appointee in the Trump Administration decided that EPA’s $325,000 annual payments to the Bay Journal would be abruptly terminated in the second year of a six-year contract.

The Trump appointee, John Konkus, said: “the American people have major concerns with newspapers and the media,” according to a report by Greenwire. And so Konkus, an EPA communications official who also works as a media consultant for Republican political campaigns, saw no reason for EPA to keep funding the Bay Journal.

In a Senate committee hearing, Maryland Senator Ben Cardin, a Democrat, grilled EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt about what appeared to be a politically motivated attack on the freedom of the press.

 

Natural Gas Now

Next month, the Maryland Public Service Commission will vote on whether to allow a Canadian energy company to buy Washington Gas and Light, a public utility that has provided electricity and natural gas to customers in the District of Columbia and Maryland suburbs for more than a century.

The proposed merger of AltaGas and Washington Gas is part of a trend across the country. Increasing numbers of locally-owned and controlled public utilities are being bought up by large corporate conglomerates based in distant headquarters, according to Paul Patterson, a utility industry analyst at Glenrock Associates in New York.

 “What you are seeing generally speaking in the utility sector is a considerable amount of consolidation for several years now,” Patterson said. “So, in the Washington DC area, for instance, you saw PEPCO – which is a familiar name on the electric side – that was bought recently by Exelon, which owns Baltimore Gas and Electric and some other utilities in Philadelphia and Chicago.”

As part of the discussions over Maryland’s approval of the proposed $4.5 billion AltaGas/Washington Gas merger deal, Governor Larry Hogan’s administration negotiated for the Canadian company to pay $103 million to kick start a natural gas pipeline expansion project in rural areas throughout Maryland, according to the Maryland Energy Administration.

University of Maryland Extension Service

Chlorpyrifos is a common insecticide sprayed on fruits, vegetables and golf courses around the world since the 1960s, but increasingly linked by scientists to brain damage and developmental problems in children.

After being petitioned by public health organizations, scientists at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in November 2016  -- at the end of the Obama Administration – recommended a ban for chlorpyrifos because of these health concerns.

But as one of his first acts as the Trump Administration’s Administrator of EPA, Scott Pruitt in March 2017 overruled his scientists and allowed manufacturer Dow Agro Sciences to continue to sell the pesticide.

In Maryland, state Delegate Dana Stein, Vice-Chair of the House Environment and Transportation Committee, recently worked with colleagues to introduce legislation that would counteract the decision of the Trump Administration and ban chlorpyrifos in Maryland.

The Smithsonian Environmental Research Center.

Blue crabs are an important part of the Chesapeake region’s culture, diet, and economy. But crab remains are rare in archeological sites around the Bay. This has led some scientists to believe that Native Americans did not eat the beautiful swimmers that today we find so delicious.

"What we know about Native Americans ate is based on some historic records, but also on looking at the trash piles that Indians left, mostly on the shoreline of Chesapeake Bay," said Tuck Hines, Director of the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center. "And the majority of those trash piles are made up of oyster shells. But not much in the way of blue crab remains are generally found in those trash piles or 'middens.'"

The Billings Gazette

Last week, the U.S. Senate Environment and Public Works Committee held a hearing on the Trump Administration’s management of the Environmental Protection Agency. 

Chairman John Barrasso, a Republican from Wyoming, made a case frequently repeated by the administration: that by eliminating environmental regulations and slashing the budget and power of EPA, President Trump had unleashed job growth and a booming economy.

“The administration’s deregulatory approach is working,” Barrasso said. “According to the last Energy Information Administration quarterly report, coal production in the West is 19.7 percent higher than in the second quarter of 2016.  In addition, the stock market is reaching record, all-time highs.”

That cheerleading faded a bit over the next few days when the stock market plummeted.

Economist Roger Bezdek said it would be wrong to credit President Trump for either the rise in the market – which actually began under President Obama – or blame him for its sudden fall.

Tom Pelton

Twelve years ago, Baltimore spent $2.2 million on an erosion control project in a stream called the Stony Run that flows through a beautiful wooded park in North Baltimore. The city brought in bulldozers, cut down about 150 trees, and built rock walls and dams in an effort to slow the water’s flow.

The project succeeded in creating a series of pools in which minnows now live. But there is no evidence that it achieved its main objective: catching and reducing sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus pollution being washed downstream into the Chesapeake Bay.

Then, about two years after it was built, rain storms overwhelmed the system. The storms knocked the streamside boulders down into the waterway and required the construction crews and backhoes to return to the park again to fix it, temporarily.

A few years later, this fix was undone by another set of rain storms that again bashed the rocks out of place -- requiring a new round of repairs, this time costing $500,000. 

The New York Times

Earlier this month, the Trump Administration announced that it would open up the entire Eastern Seaboard to offshore drilling – including at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay.

“Offshore energy production will reduce the cost of energy, create countless new jobs, and make America more secure and far more energy independent,” Trump said.

Immediately after the announcement, the Republican governor of Florida, Rick Scott – leader of a politically important swing state where Trump maintains a waterfront mansion -- met with Trump’s secretary of the interior, Ryan Zinke. The governor voiced his strong objection to the offshore drilling near his state, because oil spills and unsightly oil platforms might put Florida’s tourism industry at risk.

Zinke quickly switched positions, and announced that Florida – but only Florida – was exempt and would not have offshore drilling.

 

Tom Pelton

The sun was setting behind a sea of pink and steel gray clouds at the Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge on Maryland’s Eastern shore when a few dozen, then hundreds, then thousands of migrating geese rose into the sky with an explosion of wings.

Next to these wetlands is a futuristic-looking building with an array of solar panels and green roof.

This is the new Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad Visitors Center, which the Maryland Department of Natural Resources opened last year. It honors Tubman, the antislavery freedom fighter, who lived and hid runaway slaves here among the trackless marshes and loblolly pine forests surrounding the Blackwater River.

Angela Crenshaw, assistant manager of the facility, said the center focuses in part on nature because Tubman was a master of surviving alone in the wilderness.  She was a slave who escaped through the woods to freedom in the North and then returned a dozen times to personally rescue about 80 more people.

“Harriet Tubman was the ultimate outdoorswoman, which is the aspect of her life that I like to talk about the most,” Crenshaw said.

  

Rachel Baye

The Maryland General Assembly session opens today in Annapolis.  Last year, state lawmakers – in the face of a tidal wave of anti-environmental actions by the Trump Administration – stood against the tide and passed one of the strongest state environmental laws in America: a ban on hydraulic fracturing for natural gas.

Although “states' rights” is not usually a war cry of Democratic lawmakers, the times are changing. A growing number of blue states, including Maryland and California, are taking action on problems like climate change that are being ignored or denied at the federal level.

State Delegate Kumar Barve is chairman of the house Environmental Matters Committee. He said his top priority this spring will be rallying state lawmakers to counter the Trump Administration’s recent decision to allow offshore oil drilling along the Maryland coast and at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay.

“Do you remember the Exxon Valdez?  Do you remember the BP offshore spill?” asked Barve, a Democrat from Montgomery County.   “I mean, these are issues that – when a mistake happens – it’s a catastrophic mistake and an expensive mistake. And I don’t want to undo decades of work to clean up the Chesapeake Bay because one guy didn’t throw a switch in the right direction.”

This might turn out to be a bipartisan effort against offshore drilling. Republican Governor Larry Hogan has also come out against Trump’s proposal – as have the Republican governors of New Jersey, South Carolina and Florida.

 

colubroid.org

A biologist at George Washington University, Alexander Pyron, recently published an Op Ed in The Washington Post that made the argument that people shouldn’t worry about protecting endangered species because mass die-offs historically have been a natural part of life on Earth.

“Extinction is the engine of evolution,” Professor Pyron wrote. “It’s the mechanism by which natural selection prunes the poorly adapted and allows the hardiest to flourish. Species constantly go extinct, and every species that is alive today will one day follow suit. There is no such thing as an ‘endangered species,’ except for all species. The only reason we should conserve biodiversity is for ourselves, to create a stable future for human being.”

EPA

The Trump Administration has announced that it will eliminate an Obama-era regulation called the Clean Water Rule, which was imposed in 2015 to limit development in wetlands and streams.

During President Trump’s announcement, he explained why he thinks the regulation is burdensome on economic growth and job creation.

“If you want to build a new home, for example, you have to worry about getting hit with a huge fine if you fill in as much as a puddle – just a puddle – on your lot,” Trump said at a press conference. “I’ve seen it. In fact, when it was first shown to me, I said, ‘You’re kidding, aren’t you?’  But they weren’t kidding.”

Many Congressional Republicans have made the same claim – that the Clean Water Rule is an oppressive over-reach by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, because it means EPA is imposing federal control over even puddles on farms.

But let’s examine the actual text of the regulation, as it is published in the Federal Register, volume 80, No. 124, in June 2015.

“No, it’s not true, as a category,” said Curt Spalding, a professor at Brown University and a former regional administrator for the EPA.

Trash Free Maryland

Our world is awash in litter, with a monstrous gyre of floating plastic swelling in the Pacific Ocean, bottles and cans cluttering our roadsides, and blighting even the most remote and beautiful Chesapeake Bay islands and wetlands.

One response to this: more than 100 cities and counties across the U.S. have banned Styrofoam cups and food containers. These included the District of Columbia last year, along with suburban Montgomery and Prince George’s counties.

The Styrofoam industry and take-out food retailers, however, have been fighting back – launching a PR campaign and “Go Foam!” website.  The anti anti-foam forces prevailed in the Maryland General Assembly last winter, halting a bill that would have banned Styrofoam statewide.

In Baltimore, the crusade against what is more formally known as expanded polystyrene – a petroleum product-- is being led by a pair of students, Claire Wayner and Mercedes Thompson, both seniors at Baltimore Polytechnic Institute.

“A lot of the students that we’ve talked to especially see Styrofoam as this particularly malicious form of trash,” Wayner said. “Because whenever we do litter cleanups, you try to pick it up, and it just breaks apart, and you can’t get it out, physically.  So it’s ruining our ecosystem and it’s an eyesore for the Inner Harbor. So we need to get rid of it.”

www.doi.gov

The Department of the Interior is a sprawling federal agency that manages lands, wildlife and scientific research across the U.S. including through the National Park Service, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Land Management and U.S. Geological Survey.

Although much of the agency’s real-estate is in the West, here in Maryland it also has an important presence, managing – for example – the Fort McHenry National Monument in Baltimore, the Assateague Island National Seashore, the Baltimore Washington Parkway, and the C & O Canal trail along the Potomac River.

For years, the agency’s motto read: “The Department of the Interior protects and manages the Nation's natural resources and cultural heritage; and provides scientific and other information about those resources.”

When President Trump took office and appointed former Montana Congressman Ryan Zinke to run the agency, they updated the motto to: “Our Mission: Protecting America's Great Outdoors and Powering Our Future.”

Zinke set about almost immediately to help the energy industry obtain more power over public lands by lifting an Obama-era ban on new coal mines on federal property, and lifting regulations for oil and gas companies that want to drill there.

Business in Frederick

I’m standing on the banks of the scenic Monocacy River in central Maryland, near Frederick.  As the sun sets, a full moon rises illuminating ragged rows of bone-white sycamores that flank the waterway as it winds through an historic landscape of Civil War battlefields.

Leaves drift by in the moonlight, like tiny brown kayaks.  And in fact, both the city of Frederick and the state of Maryland aggressively promote the Monocacy River for its kayaking and fishing.

But here on the river, you can hear a loud sound. It’s the sound of a waterfall that cascades into the river, down a tumble of granite boulders. You can tell it’s not a natural waterfall because the rocks are stained black and because of a powerful smell of ammonia: the gut-wrenching reek of raw human waste.

The waterfall pours into the river from the Frederick City Wastewater Treatment Plant.  The Environmental Integrity Project examined EPA and state records for the Frederick sewage plant and found that the plant dumped twice as much nitrogen pollution into the river – nearly 200,000 pounds --as its permit allowed last year. The problems continued into 2017, with the plant discharging – just from January through September – 30 percent more nitrogen pollution than it is legally permitted to release for an entire year.

Patapsco Wastewater Treatment Plant from the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science

Next Friday, on December 8, Maryland Governor Larry Hogan’s administration is scheduled to release new regulations to promote a new water pollution control system called pollution trading.

It’s a scheme, originally invented by Republican policy makers, that allows sewage treatment plants, power plants and other polluters to pay for the right to pollute more if they send cash – through the purchase of pollution credits – to other facilities that pollute less.

The idea is provide a market-friendly alternative to strict government limits on pollution from individual plants and to avoid government mandates to install better pollution control systems.

“It really seems to be a policy more geared toward cutting costs than really reducing water pollution,” said Evan Isaacson, Chesapeake Bay policy analyst for the Center for Progressive Reform.

With Maryland lawmakers set to evaluate this new system, a new report by the Environmental Integrity Project documents how water pollution trading schemes already underway in neighboring Virginia and Pennsylvania create local pollution “hot spots” and undermine transparency and accountability for polluters.

Huffington Post

Last month, the Trump Administration banned from the Environmental Protection Agency’s Science Advisory Board any and all scientists who receive EPA grants.

Instead, the administration invited onto the board – which is supposed to be an impartial panel of distinguished researchers -- a vice president of the Phillips 66 oil company, Merlin Lindstrom; and an manager for a coal-fired power utility, Larry Monroe of the Southern Company.

Also picked for the EPA Science Advisory Board was a California professor, Robert Phelan, who takes the minority position that clean air is not good for children, because their lungs need irritants to learn how to ward off pollution.

John Walke, director of clean air programs at the Natural Resources Defense Council, sees a pattern.

“The Trump Administration’s views on climate change and other dangerous pollution are well outside of main stream science,” Walke said. “So the Trump Administration is purging those expert mainstream scientists and replacing them with outliers and deniers of basic science concerning climate change, smog and soot.”

Kimberly Holzer

Around the world, ships moving from port to port and dumping their ballast water have often spread invasive species, including zebra mussels, toxic algae, parasites, and even cholera.

In an effort to crack down on the growing nuisance of exotic species in waterways like the Chesapeake Bay, the U.S. Coast guard in 2004 imposed a new rule for most ships entering American ports. The ships were required to dump their ballast water hundreds of miles away from shore and instead fill up their tanks with water from the open ocean. This deep water typically contains fewer coastal life forms and more salt, which can kill fresh-water creatures like invasive zebra mussels.

But when scientists at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center in Edgewater, Maryland, studied the impact of the new regulations, they discovered something unexpected: The number of marine hitchhikers multiplied instead of decreasing.

Tom Pelton

To meet federal pollution limits for the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland and other bay region states and counties are planning to rely on a politically fashionable --but questionable – scheme to reduce pollution.

That system is pollution trading.  Pollution trading is a strategy conceived by Republicans in the 1980s, when Reagan Administration held up free markets and de-regulation as magic elixirs for all that ails America.

San Antonio Express News

Biologists have long known that Monarch butterflies have been in sharp decline since the late 1990s. A  likely culprit is the increased spraying on farms fields of a weed killer, called RoundUp, which kills the milkweed plants that monarch caterpillars depend on as their sole food source.

At the same time, scientists have documented a decline in bees and other pollinators.  The causes of the bee collapse are likely complex. But again, one factor frequently discussed is modern industrial-style agriculture, which relies on large volumes of pesticides.

These conclusions, however, raiseda logical question:  Of course we take note of what’s happening with large, colorful butterflies and bees. Everyone, even children, notices them – and lots of scientists monitor their populations as their full time jobs.

But what about all the millions of species that are so obscure that nobody studies them or even thinks about them?  An answer to that question was recently published in a scientific journal called the Public Library of Science (PLOS Online).  Ecologist Caspar Hallman and colleagues documented a 75 percent decline in all flying insects over three decades across Germany. They counted bugs trapped in wildlife preserves surrounded by farm fields – and concluded that the pesticides sprayed on the farms is a possible cause.

 

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